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Jude Gardner
Senior Research Executive
01293 586567

Peter Lee
Senior Research Executive
01293 766654

‘The under-pensioned 2016’ is a report by the Pensions Policy Institute (PPI) that was co-sponsored by The People’s Pension – along with Age UK, the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and The Trades Union Congress.

This report followed on from previous PPI research and explored differences in pension income over the last two decades. It also looked at how these differences might change in the future.

The research

‘The under-pensioned 2016’ is the third in a series of reports by PPI.

The research explored outcomes for the ‘under-pensioned’, which are defined as ‘people who have characteristics associated with lower-than-average levels of pension savings and income’.


Previous PPI research (in 2003 and 2008) concluded that women, disabled people and people from ethnic minority groups are more likely to have the characteristics associated with lower pension incomes.

So the 2016 report, that looked at existing literature and analysed secondary data sets, aimed to review whether, and by how much, the differences in state and private pension entitlement have changed in light of the reforms – for these groups and for carers and self-employed people.

Importantly, the study also investigated how income differences may be reduced in future.


In their press release, the PPI’s overriding conclusion was that:

“Although state pension income for disadvantage groups is improving, differences in private pension income will remain without further intervention.”


The PPI held a policy seminar on 1 March 2016 to launch ‘the under-pensioned 2016’ report.

At the event, a range of industry experts gave their views on the research, including our own Director of Policy and Market Engagement, Darren Philp.

Learn more

Download the PPI’s full ‘under-pensioned 2016’ report .pdf »

Read the PPI’s summary about ‘the under-pensioned 2016’ research »

Read the PPI’s events report about ‘the under-pensioned 2016’ seminar in March 2016 »